The Rhythm Tree
The Rhythm Pyramid
The Table of Time
I have used the Table of Time in my practice a great deal, and have found it to be of immense benefit.
Practice it with a metronome.
Set your metronome to a tempo, say 80bpm.
1's - Play in unison with the metronome - quarter notes.
(count 1 2 3 4)*
2's - Then play TWO EVEN BEATS per metronome pulse - eighth notes.
(count 1 an 2 an 3 an 4 an)
3's - Then play THREE EVEN BEATS per metronome pulse - eighth note triplets.
(count 1 an a 2 an a 3 an a 4 an a)
4's - Then play FOUR EVEN BEATS per metronome pulse - sixteenth notes.
(count 1 e an a 2 e an a 3 e an a 4 e an a)
1's, 2's, 3's and 4's are called subdivisions. Practice each subdivision for x amount of bars, then go to the next one without stopping.
This is a cross section of a much larger pyramid of subdivisions (which has 5's, 6's, 7's, 8's, 9's, 10's, 11's, 12's...)
*this example is in 4/4. Try it in different time signatures too - 1/4 is a goodie... in John Steve's Rhythm Tree example, this is the rhythm set to walking pace.